The following article was published by the Minneapolis Morning Tribune prior to the 1910 Federal Census for the purpose of explaining the census to the citizens of Minneapolis.
The Minneapolis Morning Tribune, February 23, 1910, page 5
Drudge Is Denied Place In the List of Workers
Only the Woman Who Is Paid Cash for Toil Enrolled Under "Occupations."
If You Have Several "Grafts," the One That Pays Best Will Be Noted.
The "occupation" question in the United States census population schedule to be carried by the enumerators during the thirteenth decennial census, beginning April 15th next, applies to everybody living in the United States on the date mentioned, which is the "census day," and all the population schedule questions relate to it only.
In its printed instructions to enumerators the census bureau holds that the occupation followed by a child or a woman is just as important, for census purposes, as the occupation of a man. Therefore the enumerators are told never to take it for granted without inquiry that a woman or child old enough to work has no gainful occupation.
It is pointed out, however, that only gainful occupations are to be reported. By this is meant any employment, work, profession, or vocation by which the person working regularly earns money or its equivalent. The fact that a person has no gainful occupation is to be noted on the schedule. If a person is only temporarily unemployed on account of lack of work, or sickness, or other temporary reason, the occupation which that person usually follows is to be reported.
If a person has two occupations, the enumerator must return only the more important one, that is, the one from which the person gets the more money. If that cannot be learned, then he is to return the one at which the person spends the more time. As an illustration, the enumerators are told to return a man as a "farmer" if he gets most of his income from farming, although he may also follow the occupation of a clergyman or preacher; but they must return him as a "clergyman" if he gets more of his income from that occupation.
In the case of a woman doing housework in her own home, without salary or wages, and having no other employment, the entry is to be that she has no occupation. But a woman working at housework for wages should be returned as "housekeeper," "servant," "cook" or "chambermaid," as the case may be, and the entry should state the place where she works, as "private family," "hotel" or "boarding house." Or if a woman, in addition to doing housework in her own home, regularly earns money by some other occupation, whether pursued in her own home or outside, that occupation should be returned. For instance, a woman who regularly takes in washing should be reported as "laundress" or "washerwoman."
Women Doing Farm Work.
A woman working regularly at outdoor farm work, even though she works on the home farm for her husband, son or other relative and does not receive money wages should be returned as a "farm laborer." The enumerators are to distinguish, however, the women who work on the home farm from those who work away from home by writing either "home farm" or "working out," as the case may require. A woman who, herself, operates or runs a farm should be reported as a "farmer" and not as a "farm laborer".
If any child, of whatever age, is regularly earning money the employment which he or she follows should be returned as an occupation. This applies also to a child working for his board away from home.
Children, or even adults, attending school or college or any educational institution, and following no other employment, should be returned as having no occupation. But if any person is attending school or college and at the same time is regularly earning money at some gainful occupation, the enumerators are to return that occupation. In either case they must indicate the fact of school or college attendance.
Children who work for their parents at home merely on general household work or at odd times on other work are to be reported as having no occupation. But children who materially assist their parents in the performance of work other than household work should be reported as having the occupation in which they are so employed, even though they receive no wages. In the case of children who work for their own parents on a farm, that fact is to be entered as "home farm." But for children who work as farm laborers for others the enumerator's entry is to be "working out."
Employer and Employe.
The census bureau instructs the census takers that an employer is one who employs helpers, other than domestic servants, in transacting his own business. The tern employer does not include the superintendent, agent, manager or other persons employed to manage an establishment or business; and it does not include the foreman of a room, the boss of a gang, or the coal miner who hires his helper. All such should be returned as employes, for, while any one of these may employ persons, none of them does so in transacting his own business. Thus no individual working for a corporation, either as an officer or otherwise, should be returned as an employer.
A person employing domestic servants in his own home, but not employing any helpers in this business, is not to be considered as an employer. But, on the other hand, a person who is the proprietor of a hotel or boarding house and employs servants in running that hotel or boarding house, should be returned as an employer, because he employs these servants in his business.
An employe is defined as any person who works for wages or a salary and is subject to the control and direction of an employer. The deciding test is whether the person receives a wage or salary and is subject to another's directions. If so, he is an employe, whether he be president of a large corporation or only a day laborer; whether he be paid in money or in kind; and whether he be employed by his own parent or by another. The term employe does not include lawyers, doctors, and others who render professional services for fees, and who, in their work are not subject to the control and direction of those whom they serve. It does include actors, professors, and others who are engaged to render professional services for wages or salaries. A domestic servant should always be returned as an employe, even though, as previously explained, the person employing a domestic servant is not always returned as an employer.
Other Schedule Questions.
Person who have a gainful occupation and are neither employer or employes are considered to be working on their own account. They are the independent workers. They neither pay nor receive salaries or regular wages. Examples of this class are farmers and the owners of small establishments who did not employ helpers; professional men who work for fees and employ no helpers; newsboys; and, generally speaking, hucksters, peddlers, bootblacks, etc.
It is stated in the instructions that the purpose of the schedule inquiries as to unemployment is to ascertain the measure of enforced unemployment -- that is, the extent to which men want work and cannot find it.
The schedule question, "home rented or owned," is defined as meaning whether a family owns the home in which it is living or rents it. If a dwelling is occupied by more than one family it is the home of each of them, and the question should be answered with reference to each family.
A home is to be classed as owned if it is owned wholly or in part by the head of the family living in the home or by the wife of the head, or by a son, or a daughter, or other relative living in the same house with the head of the family. It is not necessary that full payment for the property should have been made or that the family should be the sole owner.
Every home not owned, either wholly or in part, by the family living in it or by some member of that family should be classed as rented, whether rent is actually paid or not. All owned homes which are not fully paid for, or upon which there is an incumbrance in the form either of a mortgage or of a lien upon which judgement has been had in a court, are to be reported as mortgaged.
The inquiry as to whether the person enumerated is a survivor of the Union or Confederate army or navy is to be asked as to all males over 50 years of age who were born in the United States and all foreign-born males who immigrated to this country before 1865.
The inquiry as to blindness applies only when a person is either totally or partially blind in both eyes, so as to be unable to read even with the help of glasses. Only persons who are both deaf and dumb are to be reported under the question "whether deaf and dumb." The question concerning school attendance any time since Sept. 1, 1909, relates only to persons of school age, between 5 and 21 years old. In case any person outside that age limit actually attended school, the fact is to be noted on the schedule.
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